Memory wound: Architectural controversies in Norway after the July 22 attacks

By Charlotte Heath-Kelly


On July 22, 2011, the attacks in Oslo and Utøya perpetrated by Anders Breivik killed 77 people. National memorials to his victims were scrapped in 2017 following significant social protest. Through multiple site visits and interviews with key protagonists, this paper explores the Norwegian memorial controversies. The article draws on the work of Maurice Halbwachs in order to theorize how post-terrorist memorials are vulnerable to protest if they do are not strongly associated with the sites at which lives were lost.


  • July 22
  • 2011 attacks
  • Norway
  • Anders Breivik
  • collective memory
  • memorialization
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