By Renaud Hourcade
In 1999, Liverpool City Council offered a “formal apology” for the city’s involvement in the slave trade. This move came rather suddenly and had no equivalent elsewhere in Europe at the time. This article situates this apology in the local and global context of slavery memorialization and the demand for reparation. It then analyzes the specific goals of the city council and explains why the apology was not well received by the local black community.