Apology politics. Official repentance and the strategic management of guilt in a former slave trade port (Liverpool)

By Renaud Hourcade


In 1999, Liverpool City Council offered a “formal apology” for the city’s involvement in the slave trade. This move came rather suddenly and had no equivalent elsewhere in Europe at the time. This article situates this apology in the local and global context of slavery memorialization and the demand for reparation. It then analyzes the specific goals of the city council and explains why the apology was not well received by the local black community.


  • Slavery
  • Apology
  • Collective Memory
  • Reparation
  • Race-relations
Go to the article on Cairn-int.info